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Mai Das war ja fast wie in alten Zeiten als noch bis 21 gespielt wurde. Er beherrschte seinen Gegner fast nach Belieben. Aus den ersten vier Einzeln konnte die Zweite Herren vier Punkte erzielen, was schon eine gute Bilanz in der Kreisliga ist.
Als dann Lars Lottermoser gegen Detlef Wischmann verlor, wurde es nochmal spannend. Durch gewonnene Spiele kam Hetzwege wieder ran.
Nun musste das Abschlussdoppel entscheiden. Marcel Mehrkens hatte eh schon Wut im Bauch. Diese konnte er jetzt rauslassen, was den Ippensern zum Sieg verhalf.
Dieses gewonnene Doppel sicherte auch den Gesamtsieg bei einem starken Gegner in Hetzwege. Christian Rathjen spielte nach wie vor sehr stark.
Uwe Eimann tat es ihm nach und gewann gegen Matthias Bunk. Am Ende bleibt festzustellen, dass die Serie der Dritten Herren immer noch Bestand hat, denn verloren haben sie immer noch nicht.
Januar Februar Oktober Doch was bedeutet das langfristig? Wirtschaftlich gibt es nichts Effektiveres! Doch ist der Mensch keine Maschine und kein Lebewesen, das nach rein wirtschaftlichen Aspekten betrachtet werden kann.
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Kulinarischer Genuss und das Reisen sind ein eingespieltes Team. Erneut hat sich gezeigt, dass das Konzept unseres Veranstaltungsquartetts voll aufgeht.
November Hans-Dieter Schulz belegte am Ende den Nicht so gut lief es bei Karl-Heinz Meyer. Er belegte von Teilnehmern den Platz mit Punkten.
Klaus Tiedemann trat am zweiten Tag nicht mehr an und fiel aus der Wertung. Platz den letzten Geldpreis ergattern. Den verpassten Hartmann und Meyer mit dem Platz im Tandem knapp.
Kurz vor der Pause folgte sogar das Nach dem Seitenwechsel wurde das Spiel noch schneller. Doch als das nach 70 Minuten wieder besser gelang, kam Wilstedt zum Anschlusstreffer.
Jetzt ging es hin und her. Sie heimische SG war klar die bessere Mannschaft und gewann letztendlich das Spiel mit November, geschlossen.
Wir freuen uns auf Sie. AB Das Mutter-Kind-Hilfswerk e. Auf Wunsch kann an der Grabstelle ein Namensschild angebracht werden.
Lebensberatungsstelle, unter Tel. Seit einigen Jahterharten Stauden in einem Haltbarkeit des Materials. Dabei hat sich auch die deutsche Friedhofskultur in den vergangenen Jahren weiterentwickelt.
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Oder habt ihr schon einmal einen Spatz gesehen, als Bauer hinter einem Pflug hergehend? Saht ihr schon einmal einen Auerhahn der seine Pferde anspannte?
Petrus 5,7. Mit unserem Wagen auf der Erntewagenparade in Zeven wollten wir genau dieses Thema aufgreifen. Energieausweis jeweils in Vorbereitung.
Alle Objekte zzgl. NK, KT und Courtage. Balkon m. Garten u. Zeitung Tarmstedt, 1 Zi. NK plus Strom u. Eingang, sofort frei.
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Schon der Auftakt in die Winter- und Weihnachtszeit am Freitag, November, verspricht faszinierend zu werden. Wie kam es dazu? Seitdem durften auf dem englischen Thron nur noch Protestanten sitzen.
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Der muntere blonde Cliff mit einem besonders weichen Fell ist sehr verspielt. Vor allem sollte er jetzt gut erzogen werden.
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Seit dem 1. Demnach muss ein Staubsauger der Effizienzklasse A weniger als 28 Kilowattstunden pro Jahr verbrauchen.
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TuS Kirchwalsede 8 3. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Dept. It is the recognized and historical player for applied research in that sector.
The implementation of a medium-term plan for development of organic farming, in , has resulted in the involvement of new partners in organic farming research: technical institutesChambers of agriculture Willing to set up longstanding partnerships with these new players in organic farming research, ITAB has developed close relations with the organizations active in conventional research.
Thus, ITAB plays a central role in this network by liaising the different actions and ensuring the link between farmers and researchers and is recognize by ANDA7 as national coordinator for research and technical actions in the field of organic farming.
Sylvander and S. Bellon document 1,9 2 1,64 1,25 0,35 8,75! CNRS: soil fertility, environmental risk assessment in a dairy farming!
ENSAM: wine growing! ENSAR: sustainability of organic farming! ISARA: fertilization! ESA Angers: organic feed quality for pig farming,!
GRAB: horticulture, fruit and wine growing! CREAB: cereal growing! Private research:! Biolait: quality of organic milk!
Danon : quality of organic product! Moreover, ITAB has recently started to elaborate and coordinate some multidisciplinary research programs, regarded as first priority by organic farmers.
Organization To conduct these actions efficiently, ITAB is organised in committees, for each production animal breeding, arable crops, wine growing, fruit and vegetables and on crosscutting issues agronomy and production systems, product quality and seeds.
Publications and manifestations The Technical Institute of Organic Farming publishes a technical review: Alter-Agri, some technical guides The quality of organic products, organic fertilisation, organic arboriculture, These conferences allow scientists and farmers to have technical exchanges.
Although this starting point still leaves scope for analytical research, it is also likely to reinforce the systemic approach. It leads to an understanding of the processes employed in production under the constraints of regulatory standards.
Those principles therefore combine academic criteria and compliance with the requirements of OF. So far work has begun on compiling a database of scientific literature, scientific seminars on specific questions have been held in association with OF organisations ITAB and non-INRA researchers and practitioners, and a research program is under development by organising an in-house invitation-totender, in accordance with the applicable regulations.
The INRA allocates 5. So far 55 projects have been assessed and 20 are on-going. About 32 full-time researchers work on those projects.
The following questions are crucial to the research program: What are the specific features of research into OF?
Subsequently, does science need to change its objectives and approaches increasing specialisation vs. Introduction Agricultural institutions and trade organisations have long viewed organic farming OF as a marginal activity.
The INRA has been no exception, maintaining reservations about the practice. However, recent political recognition of OF has prompted various organisations to draw up policies to promote it.
In France, this shift can be dated to the December introduction of a medium-term plan for the development of organic farming. The INRA, for its part, announced its commitment to a research program in January , while emphasising the need to comply with 9 National Institute for Agricultural Research 24 the rules governing all research activity.
In this paper we indicate how the INRA intends to move ahead in this area and we give examples of its activities. The INRA serves as a platform for the objectives and resources of most scientific disciplines with a bearing on agriculture, the environment, and food.
At present, the INRA has approximately 8, employees, of whom 1, are research scientists working in teams that also include engineers, technicians, and administrative staff.
These teams are grouped into 17 research departments with each department pursuing its own scientific objectives within the strategic framework laid down by the institute.
Basic principles The INRA seeks to pursue an all-round approach combining cross-disciplinary and partnership-based research.
It views OF as an agricultural prototype and draws the consequences of this in terms of its potential scientific repercussions.
This starting point still allows for analytical research while also reinforcing the systemic approach. It leads to an understanding of the processes involved in farming to meet strict production standards and should, in the long term, yield innovative solutions.
A further challenge is to understand the way in which the demands that society makes of OF are to be analysed and ranked by order of importance, whether in terms of production, processing, or control of the outputs of OF product quality, ecological balance, environmental impact, macro-economic optimisation, etc.
The task of the INRA's Internal Committee on Organic Farming is to make progress on various fronts: knowledge of OF through the compilation of a database of scientific reference works with links to other databases , scientific seminars through the organisation of conferences on specific topics in association with OF organisations and with the participation of INRA and non-INRA scientists and practitioners10 , and the development of a research program through the organisation of an in-house invitation-to-tender under the applicable regulations.
The aim of this project is to identify motivated in-house teams and to construct a network that is both consistent and reliable in terms of sharing information, defining objectives and methods, providing research incentives, and evaluating and transferring results.
This group is to support the DGER in coordinating programs on research, development, and education. Current activities: internal projects In , the INRA supported a number of research teams and experimental units currently working on OF.
The main objective was to strengthen such units and to enhance their research achievements by providing additional financing.
Here are three examples from different domains. Because, in organic crop farming, the discrepancy between the kinetics of crop requirements and the soil nitrogen mineralisation rate affects wheat yield and grain quality and in order to help reduce the shortage of organic cereals in France, support was given to research into improving the nitrogen management of winter wheat by optimising spring fertilisation.
In fruit growing, an experimental unit SE France has been working for several years to optimise organic peach and apple production techniques.
Fertilisation is being investigated by monitoring both the nitrogen mineralization rate in soils and fruit quality. This work has now been extended to apple growing.
The effects of mixed hedgerows on fauna that are beneficial to orchards is also under study and ties in with the wider question of biodiversity.
In organic livestock farming, priority has been given to sheep farming in the central mountain area of France. The aim is to compare two grass-based feeding systems with a view to extending lamb production periods.
The study specifically addresses connections between animal feeding practices and health through a cross-disciplinary approach combining technical and economic studies, and associating research, training, and development activities across a range of structures.
These are described with examples below. As expected, responses came from research units and technical institutes alike.
A common feature of the projects is their cross-disciplinary nature and the use of a battery of methods field and laboratory studies, modeling, and testing.
One project seeks to reduce the use of copper by identifying disease tolerant crop varieties, optimizing copper application methods, and testing crop management strategies.
The project also tests alternative products and bio-stimulators and evaluates the effects of applying copper on various soil types with perennial crops.
The research seeks to understand the biological processes involved and to develop alternative control strategies. Proposed projects on the production of seed and plants suitable for OF relate mostly to the actual planting material, particularly for field and tree crops.
However, for seed production, a sanitary quality insurance process is also planned, focusing on key crop species and diseases.
For the future, the INRA considers it essential for research programs to investigate organic food quality taste, nutritional quality, and safety and wider social issues such as the environmental impact of OF as well as animal welfare, ethical trading, etc.
Finally, we intend to evaluate our approach based upon systemic thinking and partnership-based research. Discussion We have little hindsight as yet and it is still too early for a review, but we can propose a number of ideas.
One approach would be to argue that science is the same everywhere for everyone and that such a program should consider OF more as an area of research, separating the applied objectives that are specific to OF from the scientific objectives and resources that are generic OF as an area of research.
A second approach would be to treat OF as a specific object of scientific research and to maintain that specific objects involve specific mechanisms and methods, even if they must still bear the hallmark of scientific rigor OF as a scientific object.
We feel it is too early to decide either way and that the program should be assessed on the basis of concrete experience.
The options should therefore be kept open as far as possible. However, we see the debate as an important one for two reasons. The first is obviously scientific and epistemological, while the second is political and institutional.
The future of research programs on OF will probably be determined in part by the way the debate is conducted and concluded. Institutionally, the main thing is to convince research scientists themselves that a program on OF is scientifically worth while and that they can make a successful career out of projects of this sort.
If the argument goes in favour of OF as a non specific area of research, the scientific questions of interest will still need answering, although there may be fewer of them.
Conversely, if the argument goes in favour of OF as a specific scientific object, the program may become even more worth while in the future.
This debate is an important one and should be conducted both within the scientific community and between the scientists and the practitioners of OF within the context of the partnership arrangements referred to earlier in this paper.
An essential condition for doing this is to show mutual respect for each party and its explicit rules. Scientists must be willing to accept the constraints of production standards as defining a model of farming under constraint and must construct their projects and protocols accordingly and therefore by discussing their objectives and characteristics with practitioners.
This entails, in field experiments, constantly questioning the practitioners so as to learn about farming in accordance with the rules and practices of OF.
Lastly, partnership-based research implies planning from the outset to include the relevant categories for action Sebillotte, Likewise practitioners will find it helpful to understand the logic behind the scientific approach: scientific questions are initially practical questions asked in different ways, often by over simplifying; they must be innovative and should not aim merely to apply or adapt tried-and-tested ideas; they are not therefore confined to experiments designed to test a given technique; protocols must be rigorous; results may be unexpected and even contrary to what was hoped for; they may sometimes be of little 27 immediate benefit and they may take a long time to acquire; finally scientific knowledge is universal in character and must be certified by academic publication if it is to exist at all.
This mutual respect implies that neither partner can demand that the other break with the relevant ground rules.
However, the partners may construct a common culture around the debate without either side imposing its culture on the other.
In the day-to-day work of partnership-based research many things need to be developed jointly, both when deciding on the research objectives and when deciding how to achieve them.
First, partnership-based research cannot be conducted successfully without clear objectives that are prioritised and agreed to by scientists and practitioners alike.
Experience shows that this is difficult to achieve. Should one opt for fast and ambitious expansion of OF or slow but steady development based on a niche strategy?
Among other things, this question dictates which localised and generic production techniques and systems are to be promoted as being consistent with the regulatory standards.
Are we moving toward exclusively mixed crop-livestock farming systems or should specialised systems be developed?
What are the consequences for major crops and for fertilisation? What connections are there with research into varieties suitable for OF?
Should we seek to classify general objectives by rank order or to define relevant and viable categories of situation? In the case of genetic selection of wheat varieties in OF, for example, the ordering of the criteria of productivity, nitrogen content, ground cover rate, disease resistance, and straw length is necessarily related to the production systems employed.
The multiplicity of situations seems to call for several rank orders but assumes some degree of openness in the choice of production systems which may not be agreed to by all and which could explain why there is no unanimous agreement about the criteria.
It also assumes that we have data about the most relevant situations, which is difficult at present. Production standards are an obvious starting point prototype but they are liable to change in line with the technical and ethical logic of production or in accordance with new objectives related to society's demands.
In addition, standards may be interpreted in accordance with situations and practices, which illustrates the diversity and variability of production systems even within OF.
As concerns the research mechanisms, the first approach OF as an area of research implies that once the objectives have been defined e.
The second approach entails reflecting about just how specific the research is. For example, OF calls for a systemic approach in its very conception of production.
This is not completely exclusive, as systemic research is carried out for other production systems, but the approach may help in differentiating some OF research from strictly analytic approaches.
In some instances, it seems that the system can be broken down into almost independent sub-units this 28 might be the case for research in the Camargue on hard wheat and rice: genetic research, production systems, and value-enhancement processes are all partly independent.
This is not self-evident and caused fierce debate within the team and with the practitioners. As such, it is pointless opposing comparisons suspected by some practitioners of tending to "evaluate OF" and the study of how an actual organic system operates, as the two approaches can be complementary.
Niggli and O. Schmidt, Another source of specific features about research into OF could be the understanding of biological variability, which is the corollary of agriculture based on natural equilibria.
This presupposes that practitioners and scientists alike come to consider learning about the scientific management of variability of living organisms in an uncertain environment as a primary objective.
This is not a straightforward question as it is beset by scientific and political controversies. It prompts scientists to think about intentionally reducing variability this is often the case in animal hygiene and product hygiene , and goes as far as genetic engineering.
Adapting varieties to various situations may for example lead some geneticists to want to return to "population varieties" while their colleagues only see progress in F1 hybrids.
This choice is not self-evident as it leads to controversy and contains very real challenges for scientists and laboratories.
Practitioners too are confronted with this question, for example, about how far and in what way to codify practices in production standards, which are necessarily simplifications compared with the actual diversity of practices and local situations.
In doing this, legitimate questions are raised about generalising OF and about the limits of the system. Finally comes the question of approaches that are so radically new compared with "standard" scientific approaches that they confound the scientists.
This is the case, for example, with the principles of biodynamic agriculture, of homeopathy, or the "global" approach to quality based among other things on "tangible crystallisation".
Such approaches demand a special effort if they are to be changed into research questions, and skills that are not necessarily found in institutes like the INRA, prior studies of the literature in which validation by outside experts and scientific debate are primordial in insuring stringent protocols and general results.
This process is not necessarily beyond reach but it will take time. From the outset, they adopt a "procedural" posture of science in the making by the sociological interplay of the world of research and its environment, Latour, and of scientific research programs advocated by Lakatos Cabaret, This calls for a large dose of modesty, both because scientific truth is by definition falsifiable and consequently knowledge is historically dated and because what were thought of as linear orientations of agronomic research defined by their own internal logic were in fact greatly influenced by the objectives of a historically dated agricultural policy and by the industrial rationale of the post-war period.
Conclusions and recommendations In conclusion, it can be said that the complexity of the question and the specific nature of research in OF, addressed in this paper, should prompt us to a good deal of modesty and patience, since the various projects need to be evaluated with a view to validating or rejecting many of the hypotheses set out here.
The examples of partnership-based research conducted by the INRA so far show that these are always historically long processes14 that are time consuming and that entail gradual, mutual learning processes with a view to defining common objectives as well as finalizing as joint constructions mechanisms that are often complex and difficult to manage.
In addition, this type of research assumes, as we have seen, transverse scientific leadership, continual project monitoring, evaluation from the standpoints of scientists and practitioners and, of course, the unfailing support of the institutions and their research departments.
On a more political front we need: a to lobby for a permanent network compiling the research projects in progress, project results, and scientific publications throughout Europe.
This urgent question must be put before the EU b to work out a co-ordination system in order to gather practitioners' requirements for further research: farmers, processors, consumers, institutions certification bodies, etc.
This system must extend to different levels: the projects themselves and the overall political level c to complete research projects, in order to reach a single definition of what organic farming is in Europe, since diverse interpretations of the EU regulations lead to unfair competition within the organic market and mar the image of OF d to conduct projects in closer relationship with non organic research, in order to legitimise the specificity of OF in scientific terms and to ensure positive exchanges between research on conventional and organic farming systems e to diversify the fields of research: OF's impact on the environment and rural development, better definition of animal welfare, nutritional and hygienic quality of organic products, consumer expectations and general education concerning agriculture in general i.
Cabaret J. Lakatos I. Latour B. Niggli U. Riba, G. Sebillotte M. Sylvander, B. Development of production systems in potato growing Plant breeding for potato growing Environmental risk assessment in dairy farming Sustainability of OF holdings in dairy farming Organic milk quality and supply chain management Plant breeding in cereals, cabbage, cauliflower Influence of wheat cultivation management on mycotoxins Cultivation of organic oilseed rape Influence of OF on nitric waste in soil Development of organic rice and hard wheat in Camargue marshlands in southern France Organic fertilisation in vegetable growing Organic feed quality for pig farming Collaborative projects Call opened by INRA and ACTA, How to reduce the use of copper Controlling grapevine yellows Production of seeds and plants in OF Fertilisation in OF 32 GERMANY Publicly-funded research on organic agriculture and food production in Germany In , the Federal Programme "Organic Agriculture" was launched in Germany.
These can be grouped in three areas around the value-added chain, complemented by two interdisciplinary areas: 1 2 3 4 5 "Agricultural Production" "Recording and Processing" "Trade, Marketing and Consumers" "Technology Development and Transfer" "Accompanying Measures" At the core of the funded projects so far are: - - Status quo analyses of different production procedures Status quo analyses and the development of strategies for the solution of present problems in organic agriculture nutrition supply, crop protection including stock protection.
Analyses of organic seed and plant production and of special issues of organic husbandry Comprehensive issues of production technology Processing of organic products and quality aspects Socio-economic analyses in the area of organic agriculture and of processing of organic products Marketing of organic products and demand for bioproducts including out-of-home catering Analysis of the contribution of organic agriculture to reaching social goals Certification and control systems in the area of organic agriculture.
Detailed information on the programme and the funded projects so far is available on the website www. It has a separate department with 6 specialised areas in organic agriculture.
Leading scientists are Prof. Most universities and the FAL have their own test farms. Areas where there is scope for co-ordinating national programmes at a European level Co-operation at European level seems to be very useful, particularly in the areas of developing new strategies in organic animal and crop production as well as in processing, quality assessment and control.
The last six years the fund has supported projects in organic production with about 6. The Agricultural Productivity Fund has in supported projects in organic agriculture with 8.
An official government policy or programme for research in organic agriculture is being prepared by an Advisory Committee for Organic Agriculture, which has been working on priorities in research in organic agriculture.
Research projects in organic agriculture Plant and animal nutrition A research programme on hay production in an organic system was carried out in The programme was initiated as a beginning of research aimed at the problem of building up and maintaining a fertile soil without artificial fertilisers and to gain experience from the use of legumes in animal feeding.
Horticulture Another project especially designed for organic horticulture was carried out in The purpose was to test the use of various organic wastes in greenhouse cultivation of tomatoes.
The project was supported by the Agricultural Productivity Fund with 1. The results from these experiments expressed mainly as DM yields are available in experimental reports published over a large number of years.
The table below summarises some research projects relevant to organic agriculture. Danso and G. Hardarson Nitrogen accumulation in sole and mixed stands of sweet-blue lupin Lupinus angustifolius L.
Plant and Soil , Danso, F. Is nitrogen transferred between field crops? Examining the question through a sweet blue lupin Lupinus angustifolius L.
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in lupin and clover in Iceland. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation estimated by the use of 15N dilution method in annual blue lupin and perennial Nootka lupin in Iceland.
Tenth International Lupin Conference. Wild and Cultivated Lupins from the Tropics to the Poles. Program and Abstract Book p.
Laugarvatns Iceland Growth of rhizobia at low temperatures. Variation amongst survivor populations of white clover collected from sites across Europe.
Growth attributes and physiological responses to low temperature. Annals of Botany, accepted. Overwintering of Trifolium repens L.
Annals of Botany, xxx-xxx. A model approach to plant-environment interactions. The role of introduced plant material for sustainable development agriculture in northern areas.
Winter hardiness of white clover Trifolium repens. White clover Rhizobium symbiosis: Svenning M.
Leinonen Annals of Botany 88, Svenning M. Interactions between white clover Trifolium repens L. Proceeding at Cost Crop development for cool and wet regions of Europe.
Agricultural Research Institute Reykjavik. Experiment with white and red clover p. The value of compost used in land reclamation Agricultural Research Institute Reykjavik.
RALA report no. Jensen, B. Stenberg, T. Breland, T. Henriksen, F. Palmason, A Pedersen, T. Salo, Near-infrared spectroscopy NIR for characterization of plant residue quality.
Book of Abstracts. The Agricultural College Hvanneyri. Report from the Agricultural College Hvanneyri. In Icelandic.
Respiration in peat soil- the effect of organic and artificial fertilizer. Soil and yield. Organic horticulture, espesially for home gardening, the cultivation of berry bushes and trials for strains of agricultural crop plants.
Ongoing project. New project The projects above are not especially designed for organic agriculture but are also of use for organic farmers e.
Other studies, e. However the market is growing. One of the main reasons for the slow development of organic agriculture in Iceland is probably the good reputation of conventional agriculture in the country with almost no use of herbicides and pesticides and moderate use of inorganic fertilizers, the greatest technical obstacle are, however, shortage of organic fertilizers and lack of suitble legumes for crop rotations.
It seems that only a offical policy increasing support to organic agriculture can have an effect, provided there is also a market for organic products.
Moreover it would be helpful if offical policy targets were set. Areas where there is scope for co-ordinating national programmes at European level For a small community like Iceland the participation in co-ordinated research programmes has proven to be a valuable support for the development of research.
But it is most important that projects can be realized on a scale manageable for the smaller countries, in relation tothe additive effects of expertise, exchange of ideas etc.
Important areas of research, which might benefit from co-ordination 1. Plant nutrient cycling. The maintenance and building up of soil fertility in organic farming has to be based on incorporation of legumes in crop rotations as well as the use of manure and composts.
A long-term co-ordinated program in this area on field or even farm level seems to be suited to organic farming.
The level of available phosphorous and other nutrients in soil should be monitored over the years. Legume projects.
As listed above a Cost project dealing with overwintering and yield of white clover has been going on. A continued research in this field seems to be valuable for organic agriculture.
Projects in sheep production, horticulture and fish farming. Marketing and distribution of organic products in rural areas e. The contribution is based on written information, interviews and personal experience.
Organic agriculture is still in its early stages of development in Iceland with only some 40 farmers and processors involved in certified organic production.
Beginning with outdoor vegetable growing and glasshouse production the range has extended into hay, silage, barley, herbs, meat, milk, eggs, trees, flowers and seaweed products according to a national law and regulations on organic agricultural production, within IFOAM and EU frameworks.
Other certified products are likely to follow in the future such as arctic char, salmon and eiderdown. Recently there has been a growth in imports of organic food, mainly of fruits not grown in Iceland.
Although the growing season is short and the climate is cool in Iceland, a mountainous country of For example, the use of drugs and agrochemicals is at low levels and there is little pollution in a sparsely populated and isolated country, which is free from several well-known animal and plant diseases.
The standard of animal welfare is generally high. On the other hand, there are several obstacles to be overcome, for example, difficulties in growing legumes, such as clover, shortage of organic fertilisers and feeds, soil erosion in some parts of the country and reluctance to accept organic growing practices.
The enhanced interest in the conversion to organic farming practices in all parts of Iceland is indeed a great challenge to the scientific community to seek sustainable solutions to such problems.
This is reflected in certain measures to strengthen research, development, teaching and advisory work and parallel to this progress special efforts are being made to promote and market ecolabelled produce.
More financial resources are needed, however, to accelerate the development of the organic sector. Since sustainable agriculture is on the agenda of the Government of Iceland, it is logical to believe that greater attention will be paid to organic farming in the future.
Furthermore, official policy of quality control in all branches of agriculture should benefit the organic sector with its favourable public image.
Rural depopulation is a major problem in Iceland. Ways and means are being sought to provide stable employment based on local resources.
The development of organic production can certainly be one means of strengthening farming communities and local processing industries throughout Iceland.
A growing market in which fair prices are paid is vital in the light of increasing globalisation and stronger competition in all sectors of the national economy.
However, on this mountainous island of Thus the farmers of Iceland produce sufficient food of animal origin for the domestic market, and some for export, as well as substantial amounts of vegetables, partly in geothermally heated glasshouses.
Although organic agriculture is still at the early stages of development in Iceland there appears to be a great potential for its development.
This presentation reviews the scientific and technical prospects for organic farming under Icelandic conditions with special reference to soil fertility, crop production, rangeland management and animal husbandry.
Climate Due to the warming effect of the Gulf Stream the climate of Iceland is not as cold as its name and global position suggest.
However, the summer may be described as short and cool. There is considerable variation in temperature within the country and more so in precipitation, as shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Temperature and precipitation at four locations in Iceland Mean annual Mean Temperature 0C precipitation Location mm January July Year South -0,4 11,3 4,8 East -1,6 10,4 3,6 North -2,1 10,4 3,4 West -1,3 9,9 3,7 Source: The Icelandic Meteorolgical Bureau In fact, rangeland vegetation in the highlands of the Northeast may even suffer from droughts at times.
More than half of the total area of Iceland is m or more above sea level and the effect of climatic variation on vegetation growth at varying altitudes 1 and on carrying capacity of rangeland pastures 2 has been clearly demonstrated.
Soil In geological terms Iceland is a young country where volcanic eruptions, on the average once every five years in historic times, greatly influence both the formation and nature of soils.
Such soils are fragile and susceptible to erosion and they are generally characterised by a coarse and weak structure. Contents of both clay and organic matter are normally low.
However, peat bog soils, where a large proportion of the cultivation has taken place, are high in organic matter 3, 4.
For the cultivation of grass and other arable crops Icelandic soils are by and large deficient in the basic soil nutrients N, P and K, and the same applies to rangeland soils with the exception that the K content is normally satisfactory for the natural vegetation growing there.
Soil erosion, mainly due to wind and water, has for centuries been and still is, a major problem, particularly in the rangeland areas of the greatest volcanic activity stretching from the Southwest to the Northeast 5.
Since relatively small areas of cultivated 41 land are ploughed up per year soil erosion in Iceland is generally looked upon as a rangeland problem only.
There are, however, cases of soil erosion on arable land, particularly where potatoes are grown continuously on sandy soils 6. Vegetation The Icelandic flora comprises relatively few plant species due to the isolation of the country, harsh climate and short growing season.
Furthermore, the soil erosion has in many areas resulted in widespread deterioration of the natural vegetation 7. Table 2 shows that large areas of the country are poorly vegetated.
Table 2. On the rangelands where native grasses and sedges are the most important grazing plants, no fertilisers are applied.
Common application rates for hayfields are kg N, 20 kg P and 50 kg K per hectare, they are somewhat higher for arable crops such as Italian ryegrass, turnips, potatoes, cabbages and carrots but barley grown for grain production receives lower N rates 8.
Agricultural production Although the human population of Iceland has more than doubled over the last 50 years and the number of farmers has fallen considerably, agricultural production has for several years been more than sufficient to meet domestic market demand for livestock products such as meat, milk and eggs and there is a growing supply of vegetables and barley.
The use of geothermally heated glasshouses enables farmers in some districts to grow a wider range of crops such as cucumbers, tomatoes and peppers.
Table 3 below summarises the estimated proportional value of agricultural products in Iceland. It underlines the fact that grassland-based enterprises, mainly cattle and sheep production, are of the utmost importance.
Although organic growing has only attracted widespread attention in recent years it should be kept in mind that Icelandic agriculture was largely based on organic principles until the middle of the 20th century.
During the intervening period only a few pioneers have practiced recognised organic growing but since the tide has been turning A total of 40 organic farmers and processors have been certified since of whom 2 are biodynamic.
From the Soil Association in the United Kingdom undertook organic inspection and certification in Iceland on a temporary basis but since Icelandic inspection and certification services have been provided by two verifying agencies registered according to a new law and regulations.
The text of the regulations is available in both Icelandic and English Amongst other important steps taken to strengthen the development of organic farming in recent years are the foundation of the National Association of Organic Farmers VOR in , the establishment of the Ministry of Agriculture Advisory Committee on Organic Agriculture in and the Council for Science and Technology in Organic Agriculture in Imports have been increasing in recent years, mainly of fruit and vegetable products, but as yet only organic lamb and seaweed products have been exported.
Positive aspects In an ad hoc working group looking into the scientific and technical prospects of organic farming under Icelandic conditions presented a report to the Minister of Agriculture.
Both advantages and restrictions were addressed in an objective way 43 Recent student projects at university and college levels have also helped to analyse the present situation and to identify the main areas of research and development needed to realise the potential of organic agriculture under Icelandic conditions 14,15,16,17,18,19, Overseas visitors from several countries, including highly fruitful contacts with the IFOAM, have also helped us to evaluate our place in the organic world.
Although the cool climate puts Iceland at a certain disadvantage as far as crop production is concerned it benefits organic husbandry from the point of view that there are fewer animal and plant diseases and those present are generally less severe than in most others countries.
Isolation, sparse population and low levels of polluting industrial activity have indeed contributed beneficially to this situation. Thus the use of drugs and agrochemicals is at low levels in conventional agriculture and pollution of soil, air, water and agricultural products, of both plant and animal origin, is minimal.
Thus levels of contaminants, for example of cadmium, are negligible It should also be emphasised that livestock production is to a large extent based on free-range grassland utilisation and is characterised by locally adapted native breeds in which a high degree of genetic diversity is maintained.
Last, but not least, looking at the positive side, it is important to keep in mind that the level of education amongst farmers is generally high and, moreover, agricultural research, teaching and advisory services are based on a strong tradition.
Restrictions It is abundantly clear that during the latter half of the 20th century agricultural production in Iceland has depended heavily on the use of artificial fertilisers for cultivated land, mainly on grass for hay and silage making and for some arable crops, as indicated above.
Little attention has been paid to organic fertilisers during this period. The dependence on artificial fertilisers and lack of sufficient quantities of organic fertilisers are by far the most difficult obstacles to a large-scale conversion to organic farming in Iceland 12, More precisely, the main bottleneck is the supply 44 of N.
This situation is aggravated by difficulties in growing nitrogen fixing legumes, such as white clover in hay fields, mainly due to the cool climate.
Shortage of P is likely to be a limiting factor on certain soils, for example, on peat bogs in WestIceland, while the K content is probably sufficient in most cases.
Consequently, a greater input of organic fertilisers is required, for example, in order to produce enough certified organic hay and silage for winter feeding of livestock undergoing organic conversion.
Provision of shelter, particularly for arable crops, would improve growing conditions considerably, especially on the exposed lowlands in SouthIceland.
Thus the growing of shelter-belts should be included in organic conversion plans and on farms where soil erosion problems exist special revegetation efforts would be needed to fulfil requirements of sustainability Crop production While the rangeland pastures, which are mainly utilised for sheep and horses, should be looked upon as sustainable resources without any external input of fertilisers, the relatively small area of cultivated land requires fertilisation if acceptable yields are to be obtained as pointed out above.
Grass for conservation as hay and increasingly as roller - bale silage, is the main crop, and these fields which are seldom ploughed up are also to a certain extent utilised for grazing, especially for cattle.
The hay-fields are supplemented by arable crops such as spring sown Italian ryegrass, rape, oats, barley and fodder turnips.
The most important vegetables grown outdoors are potatoes, carrots, turnips, cabbages and cauliflower as well as herbs and rhubarb while the most prominent glasshouse crops are cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers and a wide range of flowers.
Most of these crops are already grown organically on a small scale and the products have been well received by the market.
A review of the scientific literature in Iceland shows clearly that throughout this century much research has been devoted to the use of farmyard manure, fish meal, seaweed meal and the growing of various legumes 23,24,25,26,27,28,29, Much of the early work carried out before the use of artificial fertilisers became widespread is certainly relevant today since the results may be applied in organic growing.
At present much emphasis is placed on legume research ranging from indigenous white clover to imported red clover and lupines.
This work was highlighted at a symposium held at the Agricultural Research Institute in April Amongst recent projects on sources of organic fertilisers are the use of fish offal 31 , composting of urban waste 32,33 and the use of mushroom compost in glasshouse production Attention has also been paid to possibilities of processing slaughterhouse waste into organic fertilisers Ideally the supply of organic fertilisers should be increased substantially so as to replace artificial fertilisers on a large scale and it would be a major breakthrough if persistent and high yielding nitrogen fixing legumes could be grown in hay-fields and introduced into rotations with grasses, root-crops and cereals.
Linked with the growing of trees in shelterbelts, mainly birch and willow species, the conditions for organic farming would improve substantially.
It should be noted that there are ample sources of calcium from sea-shells and seaweed is plentiful in Iceland whereas no phosphate rock is found in the country.
The application of biological control of pests in glasshouses, now widely practiced in Iceland, clearly fits well into organic horticulture Animal production The development of certified organic livestock production is lagging somewhat behind that of crop production as in other countries but there are signs of progress, 45 particularly as far as sheep are concerned 36,37, So far the only certified livestock products are lamb, beef, milk and eggs, all on a small scale.
Other products may be certified in the near future such as arctic char, eider-down and horse meat. As a consequence of the shortage of plant nutrients in an organic form the main problem facing conversion of livestock enterprises is lack of sufficient certified organic hay and silage for winterfeeding of cattle, sheep and horses Furthermore, poultry and pig production in particular face severe restrictions due to the small amount of certified organic grain available in the country.
Compounding of livestock rations will on the other hand not be limited by protein availability as fishmeal, mainly processed from filleting offal and fish not fit for human consumption, is an excellent source of certified organic protein supplement Fields in conversion and certified organic fields tend to give lower yields of hay and silage and in some cases with lower nutritive value than conventional fields, especially during the first few years after conversion starts However, long-term experiments indicate promising results in organically grown hay-fields where sheep-dung is applied 40 but it is clear that a conversion period of at least years is needed in the cool Icelandic climate 40, On some farms the supplies of hay and silage certified to organic standards may be increased by the utilisation of natural meadows where sedges dominate Carex species.
As a matter of fact, most of the hay fed to Icelandic sheep and horses until years ago was harvested from such meadows without the use of any fertilisers.
Meadows were commonly warped with water containing sediment from rivers and streams 42,43, Although yields and nutritive value of meadow hay are generally lower than of hay from cultivated fields 42,45 palatability and intakes are normally satisfactory.
Since most of the meadows are on wetlands some specialised machinery may be needed to make their utilisation practical again and I believe this should be looked into.
Grazing on natural rangelands as practiced in Iceland is in most cases in good harmony with organic husbandry.
Excellent growth rates of lambs and foals are achieved and parasite infection is not a problem under such extensive conditions 46, Grazing on intensively grazed cultivated land would, however, require careful planning in an organic farming system Seaweed wrack foraging of sheep and horses can supplement organic fodder in winter on several coastal farms It is clear that organic conversion will require some modifications in health control, veterinary treatment and in housing facilities, especially in cattle, pig and poultry units.
Rural development The decline of the rural population is viewed with great concern in Iceland and this development is directly linked with a substantial reduction in sheep numbers and production since the late s It is vitally important to seek ways and means of providing stable employment based on local resources and I am one of those who share the view that conversion to organic farming is a step in that direction.
This would be in harmony with the official policy of quality control in all branches of agriculture and may place farm produce in a stronger marketing position The public image of organics is certainly favourable and the market is expanding.
The environmental benefits of organic agriculture are obvious and the conversion process can, for example, be linked with green tourism, farm holiday services, eco-village development, permaculture, forestry and soil conservation 22, Ideally the processing of organic farm produce should take place locally.
Thus in my opinion the official policy of reducing substantially the number of slaughterhouses and dairies should be reviewed with this in mind.
As organic agriculture is in its infancy in 46 Iceland with few and scattered producers better organisation of processing and marketing is urgently needed.
Conclusions Sustainable development is on the agenda of the Government of Iceland. Moreover, organic farming is normally looked upon as sustainable agriculture in practice 51,52, Thus I consider it logical to support the view that an organic grant scheme should be established comparable to such schemes in the other Nordic countries.
Some support is already available but a greater effort is needed to stimulate the conversion process. Furthermore, greater attention should be paid to the potential of organic agriculture under Icelandic conditions.
I consider conversion to organic farming practices in all parts of Iceland a great challenge to the scientific community as viable biological and technical solutions need to be sought to solve certain problems discussed above.
These may lead to some modifications in existing farming systems, for example, in sheep production We know that conversion of cultivated land to organic standards takes a long time due to the cool climate, some soil types may not be suitable for organic growing and it is abundantly clear that the supply of organic plant nutrients must be increased substantially.
At least some of the experimental results already available, for example, on the utilisation of farmyard manure and the growing of legumes, may be applied at farm level and also used in the planning of new research projects on organic farming.
Research, teaching and advisory work must focus much more on organic agriculture than hitherto and I am pleased to be able to report here that certain positive developments are taking place in that area in co-operation with organic farmers.
Being the first and still the only official adviser on organic farming in Iceland I look forward with optimism because I have come to the conclusion that organic agriculture is the way to go into the future.
The effects on the carrying capacity of rangeland pastures. Parry, T. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. The soils of Iceland. University Research Institute.
Department of Agriculture Reports, series B no. Some physical properties of Icelandic soils. Nordisk jordbruksforskning 77 2 , Summary in English: Soils of denuded areas in Iceland.
Changes in land utilization in Iceland with special reference to conservation of soil and vegetation.
Proceeding of NJF-seminar nr. Factors affecting production and stability of northern ecosystem.
In: Grazing Research at Northern Latitudes, p. Recent developments in organic agriculture in Iceland. Ecology and Farming 22, September-December , Regulations on organic agricultural production No.
The Ministry of Agriculture, 24 pp. Freyr 91 6 , The status of research and development in organic farming in Iceland. Brockmeyer - Urbschat, R.
Cadmium in livers and kidneys of Icelandic lambs. Hermannsson, J. Summary in English: Cultivation and utilization of red clover in Iceland.
Freyr 95 11 , The current situation concerning the use of municipal organic waste in Iceland. Proceedings of NJF-seminar No.
The potential of organic sheep farming in Iceland. Sheep and goat farming in Iceland - a summary of the situation in Mimeograph 13 pp.
Using the sea as a resource for animal agriculture in Iceland. Journal of the University of Wales Agricultural Society 75, Freyr 93 6 , Fyrri hluti.
Seinni hluti. Grazing and lamb growth. In: Reproduction, Growth and Nutrition in Sheep. Horse grazing under cold and wet conditions: a review.
Livestock Production Science 40, , Special 49 Issue, Horse breeding and production in cold climatic regions. Summary in English: Grazing experiments with sheep and calves on cultivated grassland at Hvanneyri during the summers of Environmentally - linked quality control of Icelandic agricultural production.
Organic farming: sustainable agriculture in practice, chapter 1, p. Is organic agriculture compatible with economic efficiency?
Summary: Nordisk jordbruksforskning 77 2 , Ecology and Farming May-August , Comparison of a high-input versus low-input system for Icelandic sheep production.
Icelandic Agricultural Sciences 12, For further information on organic farming in Iceland see the Farmers Association webpage: www.
A farm systems approach is adopted to examine the effect of stocking rate and feed supply in an organic dairy production system.
Within this, research is evaluating grass quality, nutrient cycling, milk quality and protocols for disease control in cows especially mastitis.
Two aspects of grain production will be evaluated, namely a comparison of cereal species and an evaluation of varieties within each species.
Once completed, sowing date and seed rate aspects of the system will be evaluated. An eighteen-hectare site will be set aside for conversion to organic production in Oak Park.
A baseline study on the soil fertility, structure, etc. Within each crop, key agronomic factors, such as variety, seed-rate, date of sowing, weed control and disease effects will be evaluated.
This project will provide an overview of the current situation for organic production in five EU member states. It will also 51 examine the main economic and motivational decisions undertaken by farmers considering converting to organic production.
Farmers, retailers and consumers will be interviewed with a view to identifying relevant marketing channels and the nature and magnitude of consumer demand for organic and in-conversion organic products.
The main barriers to organic conversion will become evident and ultimately this project will generate recommendations to policy-makers regarding the facilitation of conversion to organic methods of production.
In the production of organic bakery products there is a shortage of suitable organic ingredients. Product development and production is thus hindered resulting in the fact that demand for organic bakery products far outstrips supply.
Know how is fragmented on the functionality of novel organic ingredients used as replacements for conventional ingredients , difficult to come by and, for commercial reasons, is not always shared.
This problem will be overcome by identifying functional ingredients that would be suitable and acceptable in an organic regime for bakery products and by improving the quality of organic flour where necessary.
The suitability of these ingredients will be assessed by the production of a range of acceptable and quality breads yeast, sourdough and soda and confectionery.
A technical manual will also be prepared for the production of organic bakery products to include novel ingredients, which will be of practical use to the baking and milling industries as well as ingredient suppliers.
Increased attention to alternative enterprise development, including organic production, is vital for rural viability. Potential entrepreneurs need reliable marketing, financial and technical data on the establishment of these new enterprises.
The main alternative enterprises will be investigated to establish the rate of uptake and factors affecting uptake, establishment costs, output, production costs and profit margins.
In addition, problems encountered in developing new enterprises will be identified, as well as the main sources of information and market outlets for new products arising from these enterprises.
Data will be collected on an ongoing basis from a random sample of producers who have diversified.
Factors affecting the eating quality and consumer perception will also be assessed. Samples will be evaluated under a variety of storage and packaging conditions and indices of quality such as colour stability, drip loss, water-holding capacity, lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics will be measured.
The organisation has also converted the farm at its agricultural college in Athenry, Co. Galway and this is being used for training in organic production.
Other Drivers of Research Research is being driven, to a certain extent, by the demands of existing organic producers and also by those producers who are considering organic production in response to changes in the CAP and incentives available under the Rural Environmental Protection Scheme REPS.
The Report of the Organic Development Committee April , established by the Minister of State at the Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, will form an important driver for research in the sector in the future.
Amongst other issues, the Report recommended that Teagasc should carry out a commercial appraisal on the key products within the main organic food sectors.
It also recommended that sufficient funding be made available to enable research to target a list of priority topics.
The Report identified traceability in organic systems and the clear identification of veterinary and chemical products as matters of high importance across all areas of organic farming.
Management of soil fertility in organic systems Animal health management Ecological and biodiversity elements of organic farming systems Economic and marketing of organic production and food products.
Research Effects on Policy and Production Levels Given the small scale of the research undertaken to date in Ireland, it is not possible to detect any direct effect of research on the national policy agenda on organic farming.
However, Teagasc does contribute to the ongoing policy debate and was represented on the Organic Development Committee referred to above.
Overall there is an information deficit in the Irish organic sector and this seriously inhibits the development of the sector.
Market information needs to be managed to provide appropriate information to producers, processors, distributors, buyers and retailers in the organic sector.
Information on the supply base and market demand at retail level needs to be analysed and communicated to all the links in the supply chain.